By psychotherapy is understood the treatment, where the main "drug" is the word of the doctor. Communicating with the patient, he inevitably influences him psychologically and, helping to change attitudes towards himself and the surrounding world, contributes to recovery. The main methods of such influence include rational psychotherapy. It can be combined with exercise therapy, occupational therapy, etc.
Rational therapy in psychology
It aims to influence the patient with logically reasoned explanations. That is, the doctor explains to the patient what is difficult for him to understand and accept. Having received clear and simple arguments, the patient refuses his false beliefs, overcomes pessimistic ideas and gradually moves to recovery. Uses rational therapy techniques are very different:
- indirect suggestion;
- emotional impact;
- didactic methods.
Frequent practice implies a dialogue between the doctor and the patient, while much will depend on the personality of the specialist, his ability to convince and listen, enter into trust and sincerely take interest in the fate of the patient. Such treatment has several directions, and some of its provisions and methods are consistent with the method of neurolinguistic programming.
This direction in 1955 was proposed by Albert Ellis. He believed that the causes of mental disorders are irrational - erroneous cognitive settings. The main types of psychological problems include:
- Self-abasement and self-abuse.
- Exaggeration of the negative components of the situation.
The methods of rational psychotherapy help patients to accept themselves and increase their tolerance for frustration. In this case, the doctor acts according to the following scheme:
- Explains and explains. Interprets the essence of the disease, which helps the patient get a clear and clear picture of the disease and more actively monitor it.
- Convinces. Corrects not only the cognitive, but also the emotional aspect, modifies the personality settings of the patient.
- Reorients. Changes in the patient's settings become stable, the value system changes with regard to the disease, and it goes beyond it.
- Educates. Creates positive prospects for the patient after overcoming the disease.
Rational cognitive psychotherapy
The previous direction is one of its main branches. Their theoretical positions and methods used are close, but methods of rational psychotherapy, where the stake is made on emotions, are more structured, and work with the patient is consistent. Cognitive techniques include:
- Socratic dialogue;
- the art of "filling the void";
- method of similarity and similarity;
At the same time, the doctor uses role plays, exposure treatment, attention distraction and activity planning in his work. All this helps the patient to recognize the erroneous nature of his thinking, take responsibility for their actions and get rid of mental problems. In this case, it is necessary that the doctor has an idea of the achievements of logic and possessed modern theory of argumentation.
It is based on assumptions about the nature of man and the origin of human misfortunes or emotional disturbances. All kinds of false ideas, such as the inability to control external circumstances or the desire to always and in everything be the first, are prevalent in society. They are accepted and reinforced by self-hypnosis, which can provoke a neurosis, because they can not be realized. But regardless of the influence of external factors, people can act on their own and the recognition of this ability formed the basis of the theory of behavior and personality disorders of A-B-C.
Rational and explanatory psychotherapy proves that if you think sensibly and reasonably, the consequences will be the same, and if the belief system is insane and unrealistic, then the consequences will be destructive. Recognizing such a relationship, it is possible to change such attitudes, actions and actions in response to external circumstances and situations.
Rational psychotherapy - contraindications
- mental disorders in an acute period;
- individual rational psychotherapy is contraindicated in acute somatic and infectious diseases;
- lack of motivation in the patient;
- pregnancy, rehabilitation after severe illness, when caution is required when choosing a method of psychotherapy.