For medical examination of some internal organs, an endoscopy method is used in which a special device - an endoscope is inserted through natural paths into the cavity of the organ under investigation or through operating incisions and punctures. When carrying out endoscopy of the stomach, also called gastroscopy, surgery is not required, - the endoscope is inserted through the oral cavity and esophagus. We will learn how the endoscopy of the stomach is done, and how to prepare for it.
Indications for endoscopy of the stomach
With the help of gastroscopy, specialists can assess the state of the lumen of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. However, the method is used not only for diagnosis, but also for therapeutic purposes, for therapeutic and operative manipulation. With diseases of the digestive system, endoscopy of the stomach is performed for:
- the formulation and refinement of the diagnosis (including with suspicion of the preclinical stage of the development of pathology);
- detection of localization and prevalence of the pathological process;
- monitoring the effectiveness of treatment (conservative or operational);
- biopsies of affected tissue sites (with peptic ulcer, presence of tumors, etc.);
- clarification of the nature of pyloroduodenal stenosis, etc.
For therapeutic purposes, the method is used in such cases:
- for removal of foreign bodies;
- to stop internal bleeding;
- for the introduction of drugs;
- for the removal of tumors and polyps in the stomach, etc.
How to prepare for endoscopy of the stomach?
Before endoscopy of the stomach, the patient should conduct a simple preparation for the procedure, in which the following is taken into account:
- The procedure is performed on an empty stomach or at least 10 hours after eating.
- You can not smoke before endoscopy.
- It is allowed to drink a small amount of pure still water (up to 50 ml).
How does endoscopy of the stomach?
The procedure is performed only by qualified endoscopists in a specially equipped office. The endoscope (gastroscopy) is a flexible tube, on one end of which there is an eyepiece, and on the second - a camera. When conducting a simple study, the procedure lasts about two minutes:
- To avoid unpleasant sensations, endoscopy can be performed under local anesthesia. For this purpose, the oral cavity and pharynx are irrigated with a concentrated solution of anesthetic agent (lidocaine is most often used). Intramuscular administration of a sedative is also possible. In rare cases, general anesthesia is used, but most experts consider this unjustified.
- Before the introduction of the endoscope tube, the patient clamps the mouthpiece with his teeth, then relaxes the throat or takes a sip, and at this time the doctor enters the tube into the esophagus.
- To spread the cavity of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract air is fed through the tube.
To reduce the number of vomiting, it is recommended to breathe deeply and calmly.
During the procedure, you can take a photo or video recording and recording. After removing the device, there is an unpleasant sensation in the throat, which disappears after 1 to 2 days.
Contraindications for endoscopy of the stomach:
- shock state;
- acute disorders of cerebral and coronary circulation;
- exacerbation of bronchial asthma;
- some diseases of the esophagus, etc.
Gastric biopsy with endoscopy
This procedure is required in the presence of a tumor in the stomach, as well as for various diseases:
- atrophic gastritis;
- dysphagia and others.
Through the tube into the stomach, special forceps are introduced, by means of which the material is taken - fragments of the mucous membrane. Subsequently, the material is examined under a microscope.