Cervical carcinoma refers to malignant diseases of the female genital area. This is the second most frequent case after breast cancer, oncological pathology in women. Cancers of cervical localization are of two types:
- squamous cell tumors (up to 90% of cases);
- cervical adenocarcinoma (less common, no more than 20% of all cases).
Causes of cervical carcinoma
Scientists believe that malignant neoplasms are caused as a result of mutations of the genetic materials of cells under the influence of negative external and internal factors of the body. These factors include:
- the presence of potentially carcinogenic viruses in the body (herpes and papillomavirus);
- bad habits, especially smoking;
- early and promiscuous sex life;
- damage to the cervix during childbirth, abortion, medical interventions.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Cervical Carcinoma
The danger of cervical cancer is that in the initial stages, when the chances for a complete cure are great, it can be asymptomatic. When the process is already in progress, there may be signs such as:
- spotting between menstruation, after intercourse;
- pain in the pelvic area, in the lower abdomen;
- the appearance of swelling in the area of the lymph nodes.
Carcinoma is diagnosed mainly during routine examinations with gynecologists. A regular visit to the doctor makes it possible to notice in advance the development of cervical dysplasia, which relates to precancerous conditions.
The appearance of signs of atypia in the cervical mucosa cells indicates the zero stage of cervical cancer, which is otherwise called preinvasive carcinoma or cervical carcinoma in situ. This stage is characterized by the lack of germination of atypia in the deeper layers of the cervix.
The lack of treatment of preinvasive carcinoma leads to a gradual infiltration of cancer into the neck. If the infestation is still small, up to 3 mm, then talk about the microcarcinoma of the cervix, which is still very amenable to therapy.
Preventive examinations of the cervix in gynecological mirrors play an important role in the early diagnosis of the disease, and additional studies are carried out: smears on oncocytology (Papanicolau test), colposcopy, biopsy.
Treatment of cervical carcinoma
Treatment of cervical cancer is prescribed taking into account its stage, localization, severity of the course. The age of a woman, her desire to become a mother is also taken into account.
In non-severe cases, young women can undergo surgical removal of the affected tissue by conning the cervix, radio wave methods followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Women out of reproductive age and with advanced disease are indicated surgical treatment, often the tumor is removed along with the entire uterus. Radiation and chemotherapy are used to achieve complete cure, prevention of tumor recurrence and development of metastases in other organs.